Yugoslav tank M 84
Tank M-84 was developed in the former Yugoslavia on the basis of the license documentation for Russian tank T-72M. Production began in 1983, the first vehicles were introduced in the Yugoslavian National Army a year later, the tank was first publicly displayed at a military parade on 9 May 1985.
The concept of the tank is standard, with a driver's department located in the middle of the vehicle, the combat department in the middle of the motor-transmissions department in the back of the armored body. The tank has three crew members - the driver, commander, and gunner.
A place of the driver is located in front of the armored body. Equipped with devices for the managing of a tank, control panel with the necessary instruments and switches, system for fire protection and system for NBC protection. The driver uses three observation periscope - the main T n PO-168V and two extra TNPA-65th At night, instead of periscopes T n PO-168V can set passive periscope PPV second Above the driver's seat is a cover through which he enters and leaves the vehicle. In front of the tanks are located batteries and fuel tanks.
Combat squad - turret is located in front of the vehicle. Gunner is located on the left side of the turret, and the right of the cannon is the commander. The main armament represents cannon 2A46 smooth-bore caliber 125 mm. Field of action in the direction of 360 °, and the elevation of 6 ° 13 'to + 13 ° 47'. The canon is charging automatically from the rotating conveyor capacity 22 two-part bullets, which sits on the floor fighting department. In a case of need, it is possible to manually charge cannon. The rate of fire is 8 rounds per minute with automatic loading or 2 shots per minute with manual charging. Total in combat kit are 42 rounds
On a special bracket on the right side of the cannon is located a machine gun M86 PKT 7.62 mm. An effective range of individual objectives is 600 m while the group aims effectively destroyed at distances up to 800 m. Theoretical rate of fire machine gun is 650-750 rounds per minute, a practical 250 rds / min. The combat load is 2000 rounds (4 bandoliers with 250 rounds).
On the turret of the tank is set up anti-aircraft gun M87 NSVT 12.7 mm. It is intended for action against targets in the air at distances up to 1500 m and distant ground targets up to 2000 m. Field effects machine guns at the direction of 360 °, and in elevation from -5 ° to + 75 °. Practical rate of fire of 150 rounds per minute, theoretical 800 rds / min, in a combat load of 360 rounds (6 bandoliers after 60 rounds). For aiming used collimator aiming devices K10-T.
In the back of the armored body of the tank M-84 is V46-6 engine power 573.7 kW. In the model, M-84A is built powerful engine V46-TK power 735 kW (1,000 hp), which is significantly improved mobility. The engine is a four-stroke, 12-cylinder, turbocharged, multi, and cools with the liquids. Mass is 1080 kg and together with ancillary devices occupies 2.84 m3. On the 100 km driven consumes 260-450 liters of fuel, which means that the tank on a single charge of fuel can travel 460 to 700 kilometers. For the easy start in winter conditions, the engine is equipped with a heater that turns on at ambient temperatures below 5 ° C.
Tracks are metal, width of 580 mm, with 96 articles assembled rubber-metal hinges. On each side of the tank is located six support wheels and the three-wheeled carrier Tracks. The drive wheel is located in the back, a sloth forward.
The level of armor protection of the tank M-84 is the same with the Russian tank T-72M. The turret is made of cast steel with a maximum thickness 410mm. The body is made of welding plates of reinforced steel while the front upper inclined board applied multilayer armor thickness of 231 mm. The thickness of the side armor is 80 mm in front of the tank, and 70 mm in the rear. On the flanks of the vehicle are set rubbers ("skirt").
In the M-84 tank is installed a large number of auxiliary and special devices: a device for creating a smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the engine exhaust pipe, twelve of smoke charge launchers, radiological-chemical detector kit, decontamination, fire protection device with 14 sensor kit underwater drive (to overcoming water obstacles depth of 5 m, a width of 1000 m, flow speed of 1.5 m / s), VHF radio range of 20 km (15 km when the tank is in motion), intercom device for self digging, air conditioning .
During the conflict in the former Yugoslavia was shown to be a major disadvantage of this tank M84 was accommodation of ammunition in automatic loader below the turret. Happened was that a missile fired from a rocket launcher or similar weapon penetrate the relatively thin side armor and activates ammunition situated in the automatic loader. The same problem is characteristic of all tanks series T-72 and came to the fore during the conflict in the Cecchini and the Gulf.
There were about 240 Yugoslav factories which directly participated in the production of the M-84 and about 1,000 others which participated indirectly. The main factories were:
· FAMOS, Sarajevo, Bosnia, and Herzegovina, engine
· Iskra Fotona, Ljubljana, lasers, and electronics
· Zrak Sarajevo, Sarajevo, optics
· Slovenske Železarne, Ravne, steel, and armor
· Pretis, Vogošća, ammunition
· 21 Maj, Rakovica, manual turret traverse
· Bratstvo, Travnik, main gun
· Metalski zavodi Tito, Skopje, multiplicator
· 11 oktomvri, Prilep
· Ruen, Kočani, gearbox
· Rudi Čajavec, Banja Luka, electronics
· Sever, Subotica, autoloader
· Jugoturbina, Karlovac
· Radoje Dakić, Podgorica
· Industrija ležajeva Kotor, Kotor